a ante (before)
abbr(s) abbreviated, abbreviation(s)
absol absolute(ly)
acc [date of] access
ADD Wentworth American Dialect Dictionary
addit additional
adj(s) adjectival, adjective(s)
adv(s) adverb(s), adverbial
advt advertisement
Afr African
AHD American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
alter(s) alteration(s)
Amer America(n), Americana
AmFr American French
AmInd American Indian (language)
AmPort American Portuguese (language)
AmSp American Speech
AmSpan American Spanish (language)
AND Ramson Australian National Dictionary
aphet aphetic
app appendix
appar apparently
approx approximately
Apr April
arch archaic
art article
assoc associate(d), association
Atl Atlantic
attrib attribution, attributive(ly)
Aug August
Austr Australia(n)
aux auxiliary
Brit Britain, British
c circa
c central
CanEngl Canadian English
CanFr Canadian French
cap capital
CB citizens band
cent central
cent(s) century (-ies)
coll college
Coll. collection, collected
colloq colloquial
comb(s) combination(s)
comm(s) community (-ies)
compar comparative
Cong Congress
conj conjunction
constr(s) construction(s)
contr contraction
conv conversation
corr corrected
DA Mathews Dictionary of Americanisms
DAE Craigie–Hulbert Dictionary of American English
Dan Danish
DARE Cassidy–Hall Dictionary of American Regional English
DAS Wentworth–Flexner Dictionary of American Slang
DBE Holm–Shilling Dictionary of Bahamian English
DCan Avis et al. Dictionary of Canadianisms
DCEU Allsopp Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage
Dec December
def art definite article
Delmarva DE, eMD, eVA
derog derogatory
dial(s) dialect(s), dialectal
dimin(s) diminutive(s)
DJE Cassidy–LePage Dictionary of Jamaican English
DNE Story et al. Dictionary of Newfoundland English
DNZE Orsman Dictionary of New Zealand English
doc document(ary)
DOST Craigie Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue
DPEIE Pratt Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English
Dr Doctor
DS Data Summary
DSL Jamieson Dictionary of the Scottish Language
DSME Montgomery–Hall Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English
Du Dutch
e east(ern)
ed(s) edited, edition, editor(s), editorial
EDD Wright English Dialect Dictionary
EDG Wright English Dialect Grammar
educ educated, education(al)
EModE Early Modern English
Engl England, English
esp especially
et al et alii (and others)
etc et cetera (and so forth)
etym(s) etymological, etymology (-ies)
euphem(s) euphemism(s), euphemistic(ally)
ex(x) example(s)
exc except
exclam exclamation, exclamatory
ext extension
eye-dial eye-dialect
f(f) and following
Feb February
fem feminine
fig figure
fig figurative(ly)
folk-etym folk-etymological, folk-etymology
foll follow(s), followed, following
Fr French
FrCan French Canadian (people)
freq frequent(ly)
FW(s) fieldworker(s)
Ger German
Gk Greek
gov governor
gram grammatical
gs grade school
Haw Hawaiian
Heb Hebrew
hist historic, historical(ly)
hs high school
ibid ibidem (in the same place)
ie id est (that is)
illustr illustration
imper imperative(ly)
in inch
inc incorporated
Ind Indian
indef art indefinite
inf(s) informant(s)
infin infinitive
infl influence(d)
infreq infrequent(ly)
interrog interrogative(ly)
intj interjection
intr intransitive(ly)
intro introduction
Ir Irish
is island(s)
Ital Italian
Jan January
joc jocular(ly)
LaFr Louisiana French
LANE Kurath Linguistic Atlas of New England
lang(s) language(s)
Lat Latin
LAUM Allen Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest
m meter(s)
Mar March
masc masculine
ME Middle English (in etymologies; elsewhere = Maine)
MED Kurath Middle English Dictionary
metath metathesis, metathetic(ally)
MexSpan Mexican Spanish
mid middle
mid-aged middle-aged
midwest midwestern
misc miscellaneous, miscellany (-ies)
Missip Mississippi
mod modern
ModE Modern English
ms(s) manuscript(s)
mt(s) mount, mountain(s)
n noun
n north(ern)
N Amer North America(n)
natl national
naut nautical
NB New Brunswick
nd no date
ne northeast(ern)
NEast northeast
neg negative
NEng New England
Nfld Newfoundland
no(s) number(s)
non-std nonstandard
Norw Norwegian
Nov November
np no page
ns new series
nth(n) north(ern)
nw northwest(ern)
NYC New York City
NZ New Zealand
obs obsolete
occas occasional(ly)
Oct October
OE Old English
OED Murray et al. Oxford English Dictionary
OED2 Simpson–Weiner Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed
OEDS Burchfield Oxford English Dictionary Supplement
old-fash old-fashioned
orig origin, original(ly)
p(p) page(s); post (after)
PaGer Pennsylvania German
perf perfect
perh perhaps
pers person
phr(r) phrase(s)
pl plate
pl plural
Pol Polish
Port Portuguese
ppl participial
pple(s) participle(s)
pref prefix
prep(s) preposition(s)
pres present
prob probable, probably
pron pronoun
pronc(s) pronounced, pronouncing, pronunciation(s)
pronc-sp(p) pronunciation-spelling(s)
pt(s) part(s)
qq questions
QR questionnaire
qu question
quot(s) quotation(s)
r recto
R river
ref(s) refer, reference(s)
refl reflexive
rel related
resp(s) response(s)
rev(s) review(s); revised, revision
Russ Russian
s south(ern)
Scan Scandinavian
Scotl Scotland
Scots Scottish
se southeast(ern)
sec(s) section(s)
Sept September
ser series
sess session
sg singular
sig signature
SND Grant Scottish National Dictionary
Span Spanish
spec specific(ally)
sp-pronc(s) spelling-pronunciation(s)
std standard
StdE Standard English
sth(n) south(ern)
subsp(p) subspecies
suff suffix
sugg suggest(ed), suggestion
superl superlative
suppl supplement
sw southwest(ern)
Sw Swedish
syll syllable
terr territory (-ies)
tr transitive
transf transfer(red)
transl translate(d), translating, translation, translator
ult ultimate(ly)
uncert uncertain
univ university
unpub unpublished
US(A) United States (of America)
usu usual(ly)
v verso
v verb
var(r) variant(s), variety (-ies), various, varying
vbl verbal
vol(s) volume(s)
w west(ern)
W2 Neilson et al. Webster’s New International Dictionary, 2nd ed
W3 Gove et al. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary
WWI World War I
WWII World War II
x hybrid
yd yard
yr(s) year(s)


Signs and Symbols

~ is used to avoid repetition of a previously spelled-out word or phrase
is used to indicate a word or sense of questionable genuineness
* is used to indicate unattested or hypothetical forms
+ is used for “and”
is used with dates to indicate first or last attestation
< is used for “derived from”
> is used for “from which is derived”
= is used for “equals”