About the DARE Bibliography


The purpose of the DARE bibliography is to allow readers to track any quotation from its short-title to its full bibliographic entry, and from that entry to the edition of the book or other source from which the quote was taken. With this aim, DARE includes in its bibliography entries for all sources cited in the five volumes of text. These entries, first compiled as notes on index cards, resulted in a database of nearly 13,000 electronic records in 2011.

Our general policy has been to include in each bibliographic entry the necessary information from the title page (and occasionally the verso) of the work cited. Since the 1990s, these details have been used in conjunction with the information available in the OCLC worldwide library database. State names and occasionally country names have been added to imprint information when necessary to avoid ambiguity. In the case of serial publications, imprint information often varies from issue to issue. For this reason, only the place of original publication has been given, and publisher details are included only when necessary for retrieval.

Any project as long and complex as the DARE bibliography inevitably evolves over time. Begun in 1965, it has adapted to changes in standard library practice, not only in the formats for creating and maintaining bibliographies, but also in policies regarding essential elements and thoroughness of treatments.

To aid the reader, DARE has included copious cross-references and, for some bibliographic entries, additional notes. These are useful, for example, when authors publish under multiple forms of their names, change their names, or use pseudonyms; when a short-title refers to a part of a collection rather than the whole; when a short-title has been altered; or when multiple editions of a work have been cited.

Any quotations not verifiable in their original sources are attributed to the sources in which they were found. Most frequently these sources are the Oxford English Dictionary and its Supplement and Second Edition, the Dictionary of American English, the Dictionary of Americanisms, and the American Dialect Dictionary. In such cases the short-title is given exactly as it appears in the secondary source, followed by the attribution: (OED), (DAE), (ADD), etc. These abbreviations are found both in the bibliography (as cross-references to the full entries) and in the List of Abbreviations at the front of this volume.

In addition to published sources, DARE includes many citations from unpublished and oral sources. Numerous collections have been donated to DARE; their bibliographic entries include brief descriptions of their contents. DARE’s own fieldwork, carried out between 1965 and 1970, is quoted extensively throughout the five volumes of text. Short-titles that include “DARE” refer to various kinds of material gathered by Fieldworkers or later by DARE staff members. Each of these short-titles has its own bibliographic entry.

The rapid increase in access to digital resources, particularly during the editing of Volumes IV and V, greatly expanded the sources available to DARE Editors. Digital libraries such as The Making of America, American Memory, Documenting the American South, Lexis–Nexis Legal Research, and JSTOR, among many others, have been particularly useful. During the editing of Volume V, a vast body of additional materials became available through Google Books. DARE Editors have taken quotations from them, but only when images of the printed text and the title page were available for verification.

Digitized collections of newspapers, such as NewspaperArchive and ProQuest Historical Newspapers, have allowed access to thousands of publications that provide excellent evidence for local vocabulary use. When full page images are visible, DARE Editors cite the newspaper directly; if any bibliographic information is lacking, they cite the newspaper but attribute the quotation to the collection. If a quotation is taken from a digital-only newspaper or the online version of a print newspaper, the shorttitle makes that clear. Bibliographic entries for digitized newspapers include date ranges available at the time the entry was created; such ranges change as publishers of digital collections expand their holdings.

Bibliographic entries for Internet sources have conformed as far as possible to the evolving standards of the library profession. Because they change so frequently, URLs are not included. For quotations taken from ephemeral Internet sources, the short-title “DARE File—Internet” is used, analogous to the “DARE File” citations based on oral or unpublished sources.

For the preparation of this bibliography, thanks go to many people. We are particularly indebted to DARE’s four bibliographers: Goldye Mohr (1965–1986), Leonard Zwilling (1986–2004), Sally Jacobs (2004–2006), and Janet Monk (2006–2012); to all the “look-up” assistants, who checked citations and gathered bibliographical data; to Luanne von Schneidemesser, who pioneered DARE’s transition to an electronic database and coordinated progress throughout much of the project, including its final stages; to Elizabeth Blake and Elizabeth Gardner, who followed entries from inputting to formatting and proofing, and whose very keen eyes detected inconsistencies and anomalies; and to Julie Schnebly, who worked with a huge and unwieldy database to bring order and consistency to this massive project.